Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy –

Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy



  • Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM) is a scientific syndrome in cirrhotic sufferers characterised by impaired contractile reserve in response to emphasize and/or altered diastolic perform together with electrophysiological abnormalities within the absence of different identified cardiac illness.
  • •CCM is a separate scientific entity from alcoholic cardiomyopathy.


  • CCM

Epidemiology & Demographics

Incidence and Prevalence

  • •Prevalence between 40% to 50% in cirrhotic sufferers (based mostly on the 2005 definition of CCM) impartial of liver illness etiology and three% to 23.4% of sufferers present process orthotopic liver transplantation.
  • •Cardiac dysfunction is seen in 50% of sufferers with superior cirrhosis.
  • •Coronary heart failure happens in 7% to 21% of sufferers who bear orthotopic liver transplantation.

What will increase the Threat of Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy?

  • •Average to extreme cirrhosis (Baby Pugh B or C) tends to have no less than one function of CCM. There isn’t any direct correlation between the diploma of liver cirrhosis (assessed by Baby Pugh or MELD rating) and CCM.
  • •Posttransjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS): Elevated left ventricular preload secondary to the shift of splanchnic blood by way of the unreal shunts overloading a noncompliant left ventricle, resulting in overt coronary heart failure.

What are the Signs of Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy?

Bodily Findings & Scientific Presentation

Scientific and bodily options embody:

  • •Signs and indicators of coronary heart failure: Diminished train capability, dyspnea on exertion, tachycardia, edema, ascites, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, pulmonary congestion, elevated jugular venous strain and/or hepato-jugular reflex, and an S3 or S4 gallop
  • •Electrophysiological disturbances: QTc interval prolongation (>440 msec), Torsade de pointes, chronotropic incompetence

Etiology & Pathophysiology

Etiology is multifactorial in sufferers with liver illness.

Mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction embody the next:

  • •Elevated catecholamines in cirrhotic sufferers finally results in the downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors leading to attenuated inotropic and chronotropic perform.
  • •Inflammatory stimuli from nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, endocannabinoids, and cytokines, resembling TNF-a, improve cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
  • •Impaired metabolic perform of the liver with decreased degradation of sure proteins.
  • •The decreased efficient quantity prompts the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), resulting in fibrosis and stiff ventricles.
  • •Myocyte membrane modifications: Potassium channel defect results in electrophysiological imbalances resembling QT prolongation, chronotropic incompetence, and mechanical dyssynchrony.
  • •Hyperdynamic circulation: Elevated quantity growth however with poor quantity distribution (elevated splanchnic circulation, decreased central circulation) results in a lower within the efficient circulating blood quantity, which prompts the RAAS and sympathetic nervous system and results in tachycardia and elevated cardiac output.


The 2005 World Congress of Gastroenterology proposed the next standards for CCM:

  • •Systolic dysfunction (LV EF <55%, blunted improve in cardiac output with train)
  • •Diastolic dysfunction on echocardiogram (E/A <1.0, deceleration time >200 msec, isovolumetric rest time >80 msec)
  • •Supportive standards: Electromechanical abnormalities (extended QTc), coronary heart chamber alterations (enlarged left atrium), humoral modifications (elevated mind natriuretic peptide [BNP], N-terminal pro-BNP [NT pro-BNP], or troponin)

The 2019 proposed standards by the Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy Consortium:

  • •Systolic dysfunction (LVEF < 50% or Absolute GLS <-18% or >-22%
  • •Diastolic dysfunction ( 3 of the next): Tissue Doppler velocities with septal e’< 7 cm/s, E/e’ > 14, left atrial dimension (LAVI > 34 ml/m2) and tricuspid regurgitation jet (TR velocity > 2.8 m/s).

Differential Analysis

  • •Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM)
  • •Cardiac cirrhosis-congestive hepatopathy
  • •Iron-induced cardiac illness (hemochromatosis)
  • •Dilated cardiomyopathy
  • •Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • •Restrictive cardiomyopathy
  • •Coronary atherosclerosis with left ventricular dysfunction
  • •Porto-pulmonary hypertension


  • •BNP and NT pro-BNP: Markers of fluid overload, can correlate with the severity of cirrhosis
  • •Troponin I or T: Assess cardiac ischemia, elevated LV mass

Imaging Research

  • •Electrocardiography: QTc >440 msec, ST depressions, bundle department block
  • •Chest x-ray: Pulmonary congestion, left atrial and ventricular enlargement
  • •Echocardiogram: Resting systolic dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction, and tricuspid regurgitation.
  • •MRI: Morphological analysis of the liver and the center (shunts, chamber quantification, tissue characterization, myocardial extracellular quantity)

Diagnostic Assessments

  • •Train testing (upright bicycle ergometry): Suppressed improve in cardiac output with train.
  • •Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE): Lack of contractile reserve with dobutamine outlined as a rise in LV EF <10% and/or diastolic dysfunction. DSE has restricted utility resulting from downregulated β-receptors. Atropine may play a task in reaching goal coronary heart charge.
  • •Cardiopulmonary train testing: Assess candidacy for concomitant coronary heart transplantation.


There are not any well-established tips for the administration of CCM. Administration ought to comply with the identical tips as in noncirrhotics.

Nonpharmacologic Remedy

  • •Threat-factor modification: Weight reduction, smoking cessation, train, blood strain management
  • •Oxygen supplementation if indicators of hypoxia
  • •Dietary sodium restriction (<2 g/day)
  • •Fluid restriction when serum sodium <120 mmol/L
  • •Pneumococcal and influenza vaccination

Acute Common Rx

  • •Acute pulmonary edema: Head elevation ≥30 levels, early diuretic use (furosemide, bumetanide, torsemide); nitrates are helpful if concomitant hypertension or chest ache.
  • •Cardiogenic shock: Inotropes (dobutamine, milrinone), vasopressors (norepinephrine, dopamine), and mechanical help if wanted. Keep away from nitroprusside for afterload discount as cirrhotic sufferers are at greater danger of cyanide toxicity.

Continual Rx

Continual administration is in keeping with the remedy of sufferers with coronary heart failure.

  • •Diuretics: Furosemide and spironolactone are the mainstay for treating fluid overload in cirrhosis.
  • •Beta-blockers: They promote the discount of the QT interval. Nonselective beta-blockers are identified to stop variceal bleeding. One ought to train with warning as a result of beta-blockers can scale back cardiac output.
  • •Liver transplantation is the treatment for cirrhosis and its related cardiomyopathy. It has been proven to revive train capability inside 6 to 12 mo.
  • •Orthotopic mixed coronary heart and liver transplantation ought to be thought-about if indicated.


  • •Mortality charge is unclear as a result of most sufferers die from repercussions of liver failure.
  • •Liver transplant can reverse CCM options, together with systolic and diastolic dysfunction and QT prolongation.
  • •Sufferers with diastolic dysfunction have worse prognosis after liver transplantation.


Observe-up with a heart specialist is really useful.

 Pearls & Issues


  • •CCM ought to be thought-about in cirrhotic sufferers who current with signs and indicators of coronary heart failure or arrhythmia.
  • •Diagnostic standards are based mostly on bodily examination, echocardiogram (systolic or diastolic dysfunction), stress testing, electrophysiological disturbances, and laboratory abnormalities.
  • •Liver transplantation is the definitive remedy for this uncommon scientific entity.


Therapy of liver illness previous to development to cirrhosis

Affected person & Household Schooling

A multidisciplinary workforce involving a hepatologist and heart specialist could also be helpful in long-term administration and affected person schooling.

Search Extra Data

  • Carvalho M.V.H., et al.: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy: the liver impacts the center. Braz J Med Biol Res 2019; 52 (2): pp. e7809.
  • Enache I., et al.: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and hepatopulmonary syndrome: prevalence and prognosis in a collection of sufferers. Respir Med 2013; 107: pp. 1030-1036.
  • Izzy M., et al.: Redefining cirrhotic cardiomyopathy for the trendy period. Hepatology 2020; 71 (1): pp. 334-345.
  • Møller S., et al.: An replace on cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Knowledgeable Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 13 (5): pp. 497-505.
  • Páll A., et al.: Pathophysiological and scientific method to cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2014; 23 (3): pp. 301-310.
  • Sampaio F., et al.: Left ventricular perform evaluation in cirrhosis: present strategies and future instructions. World J Gastroenterol 2016; 22 (1): pp. 112-125.
  • Silvestre O., et al.: β-Blocker remedy for cirrhotic cardiomyopathy: a randomized-controlled trial. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 30 (8): pp. 930-937.
  • Zardi E.M., et al.: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 56 (7): pp. 539-549.